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Saturday, November 30, 2013

The buildings which can beat Tallest Building in the world

The Burj Khalifa, currently the tallest tower in the world, with 2716.5-feet of aluminum and steel, and its 26,000 hand-cut glass panels. The Burj Khalifa blows away the next-nearest skyscraper, which is Taiwan's 1670-foot Taipei 101, and the building has even surpassed ultra-tall, ground-cable-supported radio antennas. 

Architects' vertical leapfrogging, however, isn't likely to stop at the Burj Khalifa. While the tower will be a tough one to beat, it is likely to remain at the pinnacle for only about another half-dozen years. Developers around the world have proposed numerous new skyscrapers. Some projects have leapt off the drawing boards, though plans for many record-breaking towers have been scuttled because of the global economic spasms of the past couple years. (The original name of the Burj Khalifa, the Burj Dubai, was changed at the last minute to recognize United Arab Emirates president Sheik Khalifa bin Zayed al-Nahyan, who as emir of Abu Dhabi gave struggling Dubai a $10 billion bailout last month.) 

So what buildings could be the next to rise up and steal the Burj Khalifa's crown? Here are eight future contenders. 

1. Burj Mubarak al Kabir

Location /// Madinat Al Hareer (City of Silk), Kuwait
Projected Height /// 3284 ft

(Photograph by Eric Kuhne and Associates)

This mammoth structure will rise to exactly 3284 feet, or 1001 meters. The height, in meters, is an allusion to the classic collection of Middle Eastern and South Asian folk tales One Thousand and One Arabian Nights, says London-based architect Eric Kuhne, whose firm designed the tower. To break the kilometer-high mark (which is 3281 feet), the $7 billion-plus Mubarak al Kabir will have three interlocked towers that support the overall structure. These towers, or "blades," pinwheel about a triangular central shaft that holds elevators and mechanical equipment. Each blade twists 45 degrees as it rises, for strength, and expands slightly at the top. This Kuwaiti landmark will therefore place more mass and usable space near its zenith compared to other towers, says Kuhne, to avoid the structure having too thin and flexible a tip. To dissipate high-altitude, tower-buffeting gales that could blow at 150 miles per hour, the Mubarak al Kabir will see the first architectural deployment of vertical ailerons—the normally horizontal flaps airline passengers see on a plane's trailing wing edge that help counter wind disturbances. "They will look like continuous ribbons running vertically along the six leading edges of the three blades," Kuhne says. "As [the ailerons] are constantly moving, and catching the sun while they adjust, sunlight will glint off their surfaces. It will add a gentle rippling reflection to the edges of the blades that will add dynamic sparkle to the tower," Kuhne says. The Burj Mubarak has a projected completion date of 2016. 

2.1 Dubai

Location /// Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Projected Height /// Three towers: 1969 ft, 2625 ft and 3281 ft

(Photograph by Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture)

Building higher also means building wider. That is why the 3280-foot 1 Dubai will be built with three towers. "What tends to happen is as these buildings get taller, the base needs to be wider, but it gets to the point that it's just too wide to be a single building and you start to pull things apart or separate them," says Peter Weismantle, director of supertall building technology at Adrian Smith and Gordon Gill Architecture. The smallest tower of 1 Dubai will come in at around 1970 feet and the tallest at about 3280. All three emerge from a tripedal base architects call the saddle. A canal will flow between 1 Dubai's three legs, letting boats sail underneath. Further support for the towers comes from the connecting skybridges where tower residents will be able to congregate. Designers envision building the skybridges at the saddle and then using a jacking mechanism to hoist them into place. Clearing the site for the project began in 2008 but has since been put on hold thanks to the state of the world economy. If and when construction begins in earnest, 1 Dubai will take somewhere between seven and 10 years to complete. 


Location /// Miami, USA
Projected Height /// 3000 to 3281 ft

(Photograph by Kobi Karp/Thornton Tomasetti/EDSA/Miapolis)

The 160-story Miapolis will rise nearly 3300 feet on Watson Island in Biscayne Bay, just west of Miami Beach and east of downtown Miami. The $22 billion Miapolis complex will host an indoor amusement park, luxury condos and apartments, office space, a performing arts center, and a marina. With Miapolis, planners hope to demonstrate the potential economic benefits of high-profile real estate: developers say it could bring in nearly a billion in annual tax revenue and pump over twice that into the local economy as visitors flock to South Florida's newest attraction. For now, the project remains on the drawing board at architectural firm Kobi Karp, and there is no shortage of artist's impressions of the many facets of Miapolis. The designers want the complex to be environmentally responsible and intend to have the building receive a LEED Platinum rating by the U.S. Green Buildings Council. Further information about Miapolis is scant for now as developers are tight-lipped about the project, though lead developer Guillermo Socarras says he will be announcing new details in a few weeks. Meanwhile, Socarras is in talks with the Federal Aviation Administration about getting clearance on Miapolis' soaring height, given the proposed site's proximity to Miami International Airport. 

4.Nakheel Tower

Location /// Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Projected Height /// 3281 to 4593 ft

Nakheel Tower
(Photograph by Woods Bagot / Nakheel Harbour & Tower)

This cylindrical megatower has eight spires that come to a point at the building's peak. Though an official target height has not been revealed, the Nakheel Tower is likely to crest 3280 feet. Its designers, the international firm Woods Bagot, aim for the Nakheel Tower to be the first true realization of a vertical city. Over 15,000 people will live, work and socialize in this spire with a ground footprint the size of a New York City square block. The placement of support columns is based on a radially symmetrical 16-point star pattern and is inspired by Arabic patternmaking. The pattern makes engineering sense because a symmetrical building bears the load evenly among its structural units, according to a 2009 case study on the Nakheel Tower published in the journal of the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. The trickiest part about designing the Nakheel Tower, according to the study, was dealing with so-called vortex shedding from winds, which can cause damaging vibrations. Instead of funneling wind around its metal and glass skin, the Nakheel Tower takes the uncommon approach of having large gaps in the midst of the building, with a double set of slots that let gales pass right through. Every 25 floors or so, big disk-like skybridges bind the towers together and serve as village squares for high-rise dwellers, as in 1 Dubai. Also as in 1 Dubai, the Nakheel Tower's completion date has been held up because of unfavorable market conditions, though some early construction work did get underway before the stall. A completion date has not been announced and the project may never resume. 

5.Sky City 1000

Location /// Tokyo, Japan
Projected Height /// 3281 ft

Sky City 1000
(Photograph by Takenaka Corporation)

The Takenake Corporation proposed Sky City 1000 back in 1989 to tackle Tokyo population-density problems. Tokyo-like congestion prompts a demand for green space and office space that vastly exceeds supply, and also introduces a host of environmental and social issues, from pollution to uncomfortably packed commuter trains. Takenake's solution: Build up—way up—and place green spaces in the sky. "The feature of our proposal was making artificial land in the air," says Masato Ujigawa, manager of the engineering department at Takenaka. To achieve this, Takenake will first start with a base that is 1300 feet per side, a footprint that equates to several city blocks (Burj Khalifa's triangular footprint is just 300 feet or so). Then, in accordance with its name, Sky City 1000 will rise a full thousand meters (3281 feet), consisting of 14 levels stacked on top of one another. Each level will act as its own "town," with a park-like plaza area in its center ringed by residences, schools and businesses. The structure would hold 10,000 homes and be used in some capacity by 130,000 people. Construction has not begun on Sky City 1000 since Japan's population has begun shrinking as of 2005, Ujigawa says. Nevertheless, Ujigawa says that ideas originally espoused by the Sky City 1000 project have since been used in more conventional construction. These include concrete reinforced with carbon fibers instead of iron to cut down on weight, and self-contained water-service systems in buildings that treat sewage and reclaim water. 

6.Bionic Tower

Location /// (Originally Proposed For) Shanghai, China
Projected Height /// 4029 ft

Sky City 1000
(Photograph by Eloy Celaya)

The roughly $15 billion Bionic Tower will break from traditional engineering principles, introducing radical design elements for the 4029-foot-tall tower, according to Eloy Celaya, an architect with ECE Arquitecturas and one of three principal Spanish designers of the Bionic Tower. Instead of vertical foundations, Celaya envisions a "floating foundation" similar to a tree's roots, with a tangle of many hundreds of anchors in the ground. For supportive, criscrossing trusses, the Bionic Tower will draw inspiration from bird bones, which are light and hollow. The twelve stacked neighborhoods within this vertical megalopolis will receive water, energy and other supplies by means of 92 vertical columns (much like the xylem and phloem transport systems in vascular plants), which will double as structural supports. Though the concept for the Bionic Tower was originally pitched to Shanghai, China about a decade ago, at present the prospects for this tower being erected someday are iffy. 

7.Kingdom Tower

Location /// Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Projected Height /// 3281-plus ft

Sky City 1000
This is a photo of the existing Kingdom Centre in Riyadh. Images of the Kingdom Tower in Jeddah are not yet publicly available. (Photograph by Ameen Mohammad)

This skyscraper was initially billed as the Mile-High Tower in 2008, though the record-setting height ambitions have since been cut by nearly 2000 feet. Updated design plans have not yet been revealed for the Kingdom Tower, but the winner of a design contest between Skidmore, Owings & Merrill and Adrian Smith and Gordon Gill Architecture should be announced in a few weeks. Marshall Gerometta, of the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, the group that certifies supertall building heights, says that the Kingdom Tower probably is the best bet in the near term to overtake the Burj Khalifa. Funding appears secured for this building, which will be the centerpiece of a new $27 billion planned urban area in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, overseen and financed by the Kingdom Holding Company. The first mile-high setup called for the creation of two stabilizing mini-towers to support the main tower. The mini-towers, at nearly 1000 feet each, about the height of the Eiffel Tower, will be dwarfed by the central spire. Many supertall building tops have an "expected" lateral movement of 10 feet or so, and to mitigate this swaying effect, a massive, computer-controlled object called a damper will be placed within the mile-high structure. What the eventual building will look like and how it will be engineered remain open questions, though Gerometta says he heard the Kingdom Tower was going to represent "a new generation of skyscrapers." 

8.Millennium Challenge Tower

Location /// TBD
Projected Height /// 6076 ft

Kingdom Tower
(Photograph by Omero Marchetti Workshop)

This concept tower has also been referred to as the Al Jaber Tower in accordance with its possible placement in Kuwait. This tower would soar to a full nautical mile, 1852 meters, or over 6000 feet. Italian architect Omero Marchetti, the founder of the Millennium Challenge 1852 project, says "to reach [a marine mile] you cannot use concrete, orthogonal grids, traditional systems, mortars, [and] cranes." The building would dispense with right angles and perpendicular planes as these structural engineering norms make large quantities of cast iron and concrete "follow an unnatural and twisted geometry," Marchetti says. He has instead looked to the hexagonal matrices of snowflakes, which as structurally supported objects combine high volume with low weight. Marchetti says that currently three groups of investors in different parts of the world are interested in making the Millennium Challenge Tower a reality, a step he believes is necessary to make a sustainable planet. "I think we have not a second chance, or if you prefer, we have not a second planet," Marchetti says. "I tell you that this is the future, which is up to us to capture now."

Friday, November 15, 2013

Tallest Building - Really??

 - Concept Stage

The X-Seed 4000 is the tallest building ever fully envisioned, meaning that the designs for construction have been completed. The idea was initially created and developed by Peter Neville. Its proposed 4 km (2.5 mi) height, 6 km (3.7 mi) wide sea-base, and 800 floor capacity could accommodate five hundred thousand to one million inhabitants.
It was designed for Tokyo, Japan by the Taisei Corporation in 1995 as a futuristic environment combining ultra-modern living and interaction with nature.
The X-Seed 4000 "is never meant to be built," says Georges Binder, managing director of Buildings & Data, a firm which compiles data banks on buildings worldwide. "The purpose of the plan was to earn some recognition for the firm, and it worked."
Unlike conventional skyscrapers, the X-Seed 4000 would be required to actively protect its occupants from considerable air pressure gradations and weather fluctuations along its massive elevation. Its design calls for the use of solar power to maintain internal environmental conditions. Also, the proposed area is situated on the Pacific Ring of Fire, which is the most active volcano range in the world so X-Seed 4000 would be subject to tsunamis and earthquakes. The Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid (also planned for Tokyo, Japan) faces the same problems.
A sea-based location and a Mount Fuji shape are some of this building's other major design features — the real Mount Fuji is land-based and is 3776 m (2.35 miles) high, 224 m shorter than X-Seed 4000. The X-Seed 4000 is projected to be twice the height of the Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid at 2004 m. Other projects that may be in the top five man made structures are the Dubai City Tower (2400 m) and the Bionic Tower (1128 m) in either Hong Kong or Shanghai. These structures will all be in Asia.

Earthquake Births New Island Pictures

Earthquake Births New Island Pictures

On September 24, 2013, a major strike-slip earthquake rattled western Pakistan, killing at least 350 people and leaving more than 100,000 homeless. The 7.7 magnitude quake struck the Baluchistan province of northwestern Pakistan. Amidst the destruction, a new island was created offshore in the Paddi Zirr (West Bay) near Gwadar, Pakistan.
NASA's Earth Observatory has released before and after satellite images that clearly show the birth of the island.

Here's an image taken from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite taken on Sept'26 & old Pic taken on Sept'17

Monday, November 4, 2013

Construction & Real estate companies in bangalore

List of Few Construction, Real Estate, Developers, Consultants, Project Management companies in Bangalore

Sl.No Company name Role
1  Abode Properties Pvt. Ltd. developer
2  Adarsh Developers developer
3  Aisshwarya Group developer
4  Akkayya Consultants - ACS Developers developer
5  Alpine Housing Development Corporation Ltd. developer
6  AN Prakash CPMC Pvt. Ltd. project management
7  Arattukulam Developers developer
8  Archetype Group project management
9  Asipac Projects Pvt. Ltd. developer
10  Bearys Properties & Developments developer
11  Bovis Lend Lease India Pvt. Ltd. general contractor
12  Brigade Group developer
13  Chartered House Pvt. Ltd. developer
14  Chetana Consultants structural engineering
15  Citilights Properties Pvt. Ltd. developer
16  Concorde Group developer
17  Daadys Builders Pvt. Ltd. developer
18  DivyaSree Developers Pvt. Ltd. developer
19  DTZ real estate agent
20  DWP - Design Worldwide Partnership India interior designer
21  Einion Developers Pvt. Ltd. developer
22  Enersave Consultants Pvt. Ltd. consultant
23  G Corp Group developer
24  Gina Engineering Pvt. Ltd. construction company
25  Global Entropolis developer
26  GMR Group construction company
27  Goel Ganga Group developer
28  Golden Gate Properties Ltd. developer
29  Goyal Developers developer
30  GR Developers developer
31  HM Group developer
32  Hoysala Developers construction company
33  hundredhands architect
34  IDEB Projects Pvt. Ltd. developer
35  International Technology Park Ltd developer
36  Jain Heights & Structures Pvt. Ltd. developer
37  JTCi Consultants (India) Private Limited developer
38  Jurong Consultants (India) Pvt Ltd consultant
39  Jurong Infrastructure (India) Pvt.Ltd. architect
40  Keppel - Puravankara Development Pvt. Ltd. developer
41  Keys Hotels owner
42  KGD-Architecture architect
43  Klassik Enterprises Pvt. Ltd. developer
44  Krishna Enterprises Pvt. Ltd. developer
45  Kristal Group developer
46  Mantri Developers Pvt. Ltd. developer
47  Mfar Constructions Pvt. Ltd. construction company
48  Mfar Hotels developer
49  NCC Urban Infrastructure Ltd. developer
50  Nester Projects developer
51  Nitesh Estates developer
52  Oceanus Dwellings Ltd. developer
53  Ozone Group developer
54  Potential Service Consultants Pvt. Ltd. civil engineering
55  Prestige Group developer
56  Punarjani developer
57  Puravankara Projects Ltd. developer
58  RMZ Corp developer
59  RNS Infrastructure developer
60  Salarpuria Group developer
61  Sattva Group developer
62  Sethna Group developer
63  Shriram Properties Ltd. developer
64  SJR Prime Corp Pvt. Ltd. developer
65  Skyline Construction & Housing Pvt. Ltd. developer
66  SNN Builders Pvt. Ltd. developer
67  Sobha Developers Ltd. developer
68  Somaya & Kalappa Consultants Pvt. Ltd. architect
69  Sowparnika Projects Pvt. Ltd. developer
70  Synergy Property Development Services Ltd. project management
71  Tishman Speyer India developer
72  Total Environment Building Systems Pvt. Ltd. developer
73  TSI Ventures (India) Pvt. Ltd. developer
74  UB Group - United Breweries Ltd. developer
75  UKn Properties Pvt. Ltd. developer
76  Vaishnavi Group developer
77  Valmark developer
78  Vaswani Group developer
79  Venkataramanan Associates architect
80  WS Atkins India Pvt. Ltd. architect
81  Zachariah Consultants architect

Floating Cities...

Concept of Floating Cities..

Found this interesting article on Floating cities from foll link..

Life on the sea has been one of mankind’s enduring visions, but the technology hasn’t been up to the task... until now. Are we on the cusp of housing communities permanently on the ocean?

Though scientists aren’t predicting sea-level rises of the magnitude seen in Waterworld – hundreds of feet thanks to melting polar ice caps – we may have to plan for a world with much higher sea levels. There has long been a dream that one day mankind, or at least some of us, will live on the ocean. Designer and architect Buckminster Fuller saw cities at sea contributing to a sustainable future for humanity. But then floating cities evoked images of flop films, or worse, of wealthy “robber barons” escaping to the high seas for financial reasons. Now, several groups are trying to change this perception by researching technologies that could help create floating cities, or “seasteads”, which become innovative models of sustainability and peaceful cooperation.
Does this sound too futuristic? Then consider China’s Fujian Province,where the Tanka people have been settled at sea since 700AD. Pushed into coastal waters in wartime during the Tang Dynasty, these boat dwellers weren’t allowed to set foot on land until the second half of the 20th Century. Today, some 7,000 Tankas still maintain a sea farming life – possibly a preview of a future to come for many more of us. Before the industrialisation of agriculture, most people lived in land-based villages no larger or more complex than the Tankas’ simple water-based community. It took a series of green revolutions in farming technology to allow people to leave rural communities, and move into densely-populated urban areas. We see signs that a “blue revolution” in ocean harvesting technology is underway, suggesting floating cities can’t be far off.
Supply issues
It may be a necessity – not merely a novelty – to inhabit the sea in the coming decades, but to do so will require the means to create reliable and sustainable food and power souces. Dwindling fish stocks from overfishing have prompted humanity to create farmed supplies, beginning with the most accessible environments on or near land. Yet most fish farming has not evolved beyond the low-tech cages and seaweed-draped lines anchored in shallow seas by ancient peoples like the Tankas. The most advanced methods of mass production employ harmful antibiotics and genetically modified feed in unnaturally crowded ponds on land.

But the drawbacks of current fish farming has created opportunities for technology like the floating “drifter pens” pioneered by Kampachi Farms. Given enough time, Kampachi Farms will replace stagnant ponds with GPS-tracked cages stitched out of copper wire to enable a constant inflow of fresh ocean water without flushing out the precious fish. These geodesic aquariums, inspired by Fuller’s prototypes for sturdy light-weight structures, will be let loose in swirling ocean gyres, where they only need occasional course-correction to maintain a rough position. This will be accomplished by nimble harvesting vessels driven by pioneers of this new life on the water.
Collapsing fisheries are of immediate concern, but land-based agriculture may also be in danger due to a predicted shortage of the crucial nutrient phosphorus by the year 2050. Once again, there could be a solution out at sea.
Blue Revolution Hawaii, led by Professor Patrick Takahashi, is another group planning for a future with thousands of floating cities. Takahashi and his team have devised a plan to enable large ships equipped with ocean thermal electric conversion, or Otec plants, in which warm surface waters interact with cold water “upwelled” from the deep ocean to drive a large power turbine. The cool water pumped to the surface contains the exact ratio of nutrients – including phosphorus – needed to support plant growth.
Otec technology has already been tested in Hawaii, and China’s Reignwood group recently announced plans to complete a 10 megawatt plant – the first on the open-ocean – not far from the Fujian Province in China’s southern seas. Living space may be cramped at first, but the abundant sunlight and acres surrounding these pods will be enough to feed vast ocean ranches, supercharged by Otec’s nutrient-rich byproduct. At the bottom of this food chain, algae will feed fish, which feed bigger fish, which will in turn feed seafarers and land-lubbers alike. Sinking fish waste and seaweed detritus will gradually sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and deposit it on the seafloor to restart nature’s eons-long process of creating fossil fuels. By 2050, it’s not far-fetched to imagine hundreds of these plants grazing the high seas, trading abundant seafood surpluses with cities on land.
Meanwhile, Shell is preparing to anchor the world’s largest floating offshore structure – the Prelude Floating Liquefied Natural Gas facility – off Australia’s north-west coast in 2014. The structure will be massive – the length of four football fields and one field wide. It will be built to withstand Category Five typhoons, and will produce the natural gas equivalent of 100,000 barrels of oil per day. While few groups could afford to build a floating city capable of weathering such storms, Shell’s example demonstrates the long-lived feasibility of living on the sea. In fact, most fundamental challenges of living safely on the ocean have been solved by offshore drilling or shipping companies (cruise lines got satellite internet years ago, while most of Asia and Africa still lack it). Costs will fall over time. And what is Shell going to do with Prelude once all the natural gas runs out?  The infrastructure for a marine community will be waiting to be used.
Free floating

The Seasteading Institute has also been dealing with the challenges faced by communities trying to live permanently on the ocean. It is an audacious but essentially pragmatic endeavour. Taking a cue from the Tanka people, the plan is locate in the protected, territorial waters of a nation willing to “host” the structures and their inhabitants. With help from the Dutch aquatic architecture firm DeltaSync, the institute hopes to design something that will meet the needs of residents, and the host nation. From a calm coastal area, the logistical challenges needed allow a community to live on the high seas can be solved one at a time.
British designer Phil Pauley has developed a concept for a sea habitatcomprising interconnected spherical modules that could submerge during storms and rest at the surface in good weather. The long vertical trusses holding up Pauley’s design use Fuller’s principles for strong, lightweight “tensegrity” structures. They maximise support without using too much expensive material such as steel. To reach much deeper waters, communities will ditch the stilts and float freely or anchor.
Others are trying investigating this technique on a smaller scale too. Do-it-yourself sea-living enthusiast Vince Cate has been using prototyping simple “ball stead” homes, which achieve buoyancy and stable surface “real estate.” Testing models in the Caribbean Sea, near his home in Anguilla, Cate has found that suspending a heavy weight well below the surface keeps the ball from moving amid the waves.
And these structures could last for a very long time indeed. Simple cement structures, reinforced with steel, can displace massive amounts of water, and last for decades - or even centuries. Even after 2,000 years of the sea’s harsh beating, a Roman harbour built with a mixture of standard concrete and volcanic ash is still intact. Electro-accretion – essentially sticking concrete-like minerals on galvanized underwater structures – means electrified steel mesh could eventually be used to reinforce and repair underwater concrete structures.
The first floating city is expected to take to the water around 2020. We are already researching ways to harvest food and energy in deeper, more remote parts of the ocean. Future cities built from scratch will be more dynamic, energy-efficient and flexible. These cities of the sea could use algal biofuel production and store energy from wind and the Sun. As designs improve – and get cheaper – the idea of a home on the ocean will become more affordable.
Does all of this sound crazy? In a sense, it is. But some would prefer to be called crazy than to pretend our cities and species can keep going with the status quo.